Transliteration

Arabic transliterations are written without diacritics. The transliterations into Latin in the Glossary follow the rules below. Outside of the Glossary, Arabic terms are transliterated into Latin script. In the interests of straightforward, simple recognition of Arabic terms by readers of English, the following transliteration rules are observed:

1) Wherever Arabic words are commonly incorporated into English, that form is preserved;

2) Words that have not been incorporated into English are transliterated according to the International Journal of Middle East Studies (IJMES) system, subject to the

3) exception that those Arabic letters transliterated by means of a dot under the IJMES system are transliterated without the dot, rendering the following three pairs of Arabic letters indistinguishable: ح and ە; د and ض; س and ص;

4) the definite article in Arabic (al-) will be dropped from transliterations except where the definite article appears in construct form in the Arabic.

The Arabic word treated as above will be substituted for Malaysian or Indonesian, Urdu or Hindu, or Ottoman Turkish terms except as expressly noted.